What Is a Limited Partnership
A limited partnership is distinguished legally from a general partnership. The unlimited liability feature of general partnerships is a serious impediment to conducting business using a partnership format. To mitigate the harsh impact of these rules, every state has enacted legislation allowing the formation of a type of partnership known as a limited partnership. Limited partnerships often play a key role in asset protection because assets in a limited partnership may be protected from creditor claims against a particular partner.
A limited partnership consists of one or more general partners and one or more limited partners. The same person can be both a general partner and a limited partner, as long as there are at least two legal persons who are partners in the partnership. The general partner is responsible for the management of the affairs of the partnership, and he has unlimited personal liability for all debts and obligations.
Limited partners have no personal liability. The limited partner stands to lose only the amount which he has contributed and any amounts which he has obligated himself to contribute under the terms of the partnership agreement. Limited partnerships are often used as investment vehicles for large projects requiring a considerable amount of cash. Individual limited partners contributing money to a venture, but not having management powers, will not have any personal liability for the debts of the business.
In exchange for this protection against personal liability, a limited partner may not actively participate in management. However, it is permissible for a limited partner to have a vote on certain matters, just as a shareholder has a right to vote on some corporate matters. A typical limited partnership agreement may provide that a majority vote of the limited partners is necessary for the sale of assets or to remove a general partner. The partnership agreement determines whether the limited partners can vote on these matters.
If a limited partner assumes an active role in management, that partner may lose his limited liability protection and may be treated as a general partner. For instance, if a limited partner negotiates a contract with a third party on behalf of the partnership, the limited partner may have liability as a general partner. For this reason, a limited partner’s activities must be carefully circumscribed.
Limited partnerships have always been used for real estate and tax shelter investments in order to pass the tax deductions through to the individual investors. These losses are then used by the partner to offset other income he might have. Although the Tax Reform Act of 1986 limits the ability to immediately deduct losses from “passive activities” to offset wages or investment income, the partnership format may still be desirable if the circumstances of the individual partner are such that he is able to take advantage of these losses.